RUS

 

Laboratory of Plasma Accelerators Physics

>> Department of Plasma Physics and Plasma Technologies


Head of the Laboratory

Head of the Laboratory
Corresponding Member of NAS of Belarus, doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Valiantsin M. Astashynski
Phone: +(375 17) 284-24-91,
E-mail: ast@hmti.ac.by


Several models of quasi-stationary high-current plasma accelerators of a new generation were developed in the Laboratory of Plasma Accelerators Physics. These plasmadynamic systems operate in the ion current transfer mode and provide the ion-drift acceleration of magnetized plasma. Our installations generate high-energy compression plasma flows of specified composition and on a set of parameters (plasma velocity – 50 ÷ 200 km/s, temperature and concentration of charged particles – (40 ÷ 200)•103 K and 1016 ÷ 1018 cm-3 accordingly, discharge duration – 100 ÷ 500 microseconds) surpass all other available types of plasma accelerators.


Main Research Directions

  • Physics of quasistationary high-current plasma accelerators generating high-energy compression flows with plasma velocities of up to 200 km/s; the elaboration of principles for accelerating the macroparticles and heterogeneous plasma flows in such systems.
  • Разработка и создание квазистационарных газоразрядных и эрозионных плазмодинамических систем различного целевого назначения, в том числе плазменных микродвигателей космического назначения. The development of new quasi-stationary gas-discharge and erosive plasma accelerators for various applications, including aerospace plasma micro-thrusters.
  • The development of novel plasma methods for substantial improvement of surface properties of various materials exposed to compression plasma flows, which makes it possible to implement principles for a new scientific trend under development – surface plasma metallurgy
  • The compression plasma flow-assisted synthesis of texturized submicron and nanoscale structures and formations, nanostructured metallic, dielectric, and metal-carbon coatings and thin films at a surface of semiconductor wafers
  • The development of optical interferometers with a large viewing field and optical pressure sensors, the implementation of optical schadowgraph-interferometric and spectroscopic methods for diagnostics of plasma flows
  • The numerical simulation of physical processes in quasi-stationary plasma accelerators and the plasma flow-surface interaction

Experimental equipment

Magnetoplasma compressor of compact geometry

Miniature magnetoplasma compressor

Medium energy magnetoplasma compressor

Erosive plasmadynamic system

Quasi-stationary high-current plasma accelerator (QHPA) of P-50 type

Two-mirror autocollimation interferometers with a visualization of the view field

Optical sensor of pulsed pressure

Shift interferometer

 


Main Research Lines

Study of processes of electric arc heating of gases and gas mixtures, designing and manufacturing of electric arc plasmatrons with the power from 50 kW to 3 MW and more that generate technology-required oxidative, reducing or neutral plasma
Development of fundamentals and methods of creating plasma equipment and large-scale technologies in metallurgy, plasma chemistry, industry of heat-insulating materials and utilization of man-made, domestic , and medical waste

Perfection of the methods of treating toxic and radiation waste; application of new processes in production of heat-insulating materials and synthesis of nanostructures
 
Systemic many-factor study and calculation of plasma and other systems (engineering objects, technologies and materials) by computer synthesis-technologies

Investigation of the processes of heating and ablation of different-class composite materials; study of their thermal-strength and thermal-physical properties over a broad range of temperatures and heat fluxes, chemical composition and pressure of environment pressure, heating velocities; modeling of natural operating conditions of heat-protection elements of aircrafts of rocket-space technology

Investigation of the synthesis of carbon nanostructures in the electric arc discharge of the co-axial magnetic field-applied plasmatron

Study of the erosion of coatings (materials) in high-temperature gas-dust flow as applied to solid-fuel furnace devices of heat and power plants
Determination of heat conduction of heat-insulating materials at high temperatures

Development of technologies of applying protection coatings made of different adding materials over the elements of machines and mechanisms by the electric arc spraying

 

Basic Developments

Development and implementation of principally new plasma technologies in chemical, metallurgical, and metal-working industry:

Process of producing acetylene and technical hydrogen from natural gas in hydrogen plasma
Plasma production of super-and ultra-thin mineral microfibers from glass and basalt
Metallurgical process of direct production of steel from iron-ore pellets using low-temperature plasma
Process and the instrumentation of the process of producing hollow glass microbeads and microspheres in the gas torch jet
Process and the instrumentation of the plasma process of obtaining hollow ceramic microspheres from corundum
Investigation and designing of plasma equipment: different-modification plasmatrons with the power from 30 kW to 3 MW operating on air, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, helium, methane, water steam and their mixtures with technology-required characteristics: power, kind of plasma forming gas, temperature, pressure and velocity of the plasma flow
Making of plasmatrons for plasma cutting of sheet metal materials
Development of high-efficient plasma reactors of different type: co-current, cylindrical, profiled counterflow, single- and multijet that allow lump and power-like materials, and dispersed solutions to be treated
At the Laboratory high-efficient quenches, feeders for supply and batching of powder-like materials, injectors for dispersion of solutions and suspensions, as well as other equipment are being designed for the instrumentation of plasma processes
The Laboratory elaborates the designing documents on plasma plants, systems of their energy supply, makes installation, adjustment and alignment works, as well as provides backup service
Unique computer synthesis-technologies for investigation, designing and optimization of technological processes and plants with regard to the fact that the processes are multi-criterion, multi-parameter, nonlinear and stochastic, have no world analogs
Methods for visualization of the solution of the synthesis problem in the form of topological structures of the appropriate projections of a multidimensional space of governing parameters

Procedural model of an engineering system of computer debugging of pilot samples of operational plasmatrons. The method of multidimensional design synthesis was used in trend computer calculations that allow estimating the efficiency of the procedures of attaining a required quality of an object to be made that were proposed by developers.

Bench for resetting the elements of machines and mechanisms 

Plant and technology of gas plasma production of glass microspheres

Plasma plant and technology of corundum microsphere production

Electric arc linear plasmatrons for various technologies

Restoring technology of machinery parts and mechanisms to nominal size by electric arc spraying

Electric arc linear plasmatrons for large-capacity processes

Plasmatron equipment and direct production of liquid steel from iron-ore pellets


Experimental equipment

Study of heating and ablation processes of heat-protection materials in high temperature plasma flows at the test benches of the Institute over a wide heat power load range

Bench for testing material in air supersonic flow (M £ 4.2) at a stagnation pressure of up to 6 atm, stagnation of ~ 41 MJ/kg and in the heat flux of up 4 kW/cm2

Bench for testing ablation of heat-resistant material at radiation heating (qw » 0.6 kW/cm2)

Bench for resetting the elements of machines and mechanisms

 

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